European Parliament Library

Learning sciences research for teaching, Jan van Aalst [and three others]

Learning sciences research for teaching, Jan van Aalst [and three others]
no index present
Literary Form
non fiction
Main title
Learning sciences research for teaching
Nature of contents
Oclc number
Responsibility statement
Jan van Aalst [and three others]
"Learning Sciences Research for Teaching provides educators with a fresh understanding of the use and implications of learning sciences scholarship on their studies and professional preparation. A highly interdisciplinary field, the Learning Sciences has been expressly focused on the advancement of teaching and learning in today's schools. This introductory yet cutting-edge resource supports graduate students of teaching, leadership, curriculum, and learning design in research methodology courses as they engage with and evaluate research claims; integrate common methods; and understand experimental, case-based, ethnographic, and design-based research studies. Spanning the learning science's state-of-the-art approaches, achievements, and developments, the book includes robust, accessible coverage of topics such as professional development, quantitative and qualitative data, learning analytics, validity and integrity, and more"--, Provided by publisher
Table Of Contents
Cover -- Half Title -- Title Page -- Copyright Page -- Table of Contents -- Figures -- Preface -- Part I Foundations -- 1 Opening the Conversation -- Goals -- Three Research Types -- Toward a Dialogue Involving Research and Teaching -- Teaching and the Teacher in the Twenty-First Century -- The Learning Sciences -- The State of Theory in the Learning Sciences -- Looking Forward -- References -- 2 Using Research in Professional Development -- Goals -- Research, Educational Policy, Politics, and Teaching -- How Research Enters Into the Work of Teachers -- Understanding Educational Evaluation Data -- Understanding Empirical Support for Teaching Approaches -- Elementary Research Skills -- Specialized Knowledge for Teaching -- Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) -- Some Elaborations of PCK -- PCK, Teacher Education, and Research -- Collaboration and Dialogue -- Lesson Study -- Features of Lesson Study -- Lesson Study Outside Japan -- Effectiveness of Lesson Study -- Video Clubs -- Learning to Notice During Video Club Meetings -- Why and How of Video -- Teacher Roles During Video Club Meetings -- Effectiveness of Video Clubs -- Professional Learning Communities -- Features of PLCs -- Effectiveness and Development of PLCs -- Taxonomy for Learning Opportunities in Teacher Meetings -- Final Words -- References -- 3 Elementary Statistics -- Goals -- Two Important Distinctions -- Population and Sample -- Descriptive and Inferential Statistics -- Four Types of Measurement Scale -- Measures of Central Tendency and Variation -- Nominal Scale -- Ordinal Scale -- Interval and Ratio Scales -- Application: Likert Scales -- Displaying Frequency Distributions -- Cross-Tabulation (Contingency Tables) -- Frequency Table, Line Graph, and Stacked Bar Graph -- Histograms -- The Normal Distribution -- Assumptions of the Normal DistributionThe Standard Normal Distribution -- Using a Q-Q Plot to Evaluate Whether Data Follow a Normal Distribution -- Practical Importance of Differences Between Means -- Concluding Example -- Notes -- References -- 4 Accessing the Research Literature -- Goals -- Publication Types -- Government and NGO Reports -- Research Handbooks -- Encyclopedias -- Peer-Reviewed Academic Journal Articles -- Authored Books -- Edited Books -- Dissertations -- Conference Papers -- Webpages and Social Media -- Peer-Reviewed Professional Journals -- Fit for Purpose -- How Teachers Interact With the Research Literature -- Systematic Search of the Research Literature -- Databases and Other Tools for Literature Reviews -- The Literature Search Process -- A Worked Search Example -- After the Search -- References -- 5 The Research Article -- Goals -- What We Can Learn From a Research Article -- The Influence of Research Articles -- Understanding the Argument of an Article -- Framing the Argument -- Zooming Into the Research Problem, Research Questions, and Objectives -- Comprehending the Answers to the Research Questions -- Zooming Out Again to the Implications for Teaching and Research -- The U-Shaped Article -- An Example From the Literature -- Final Words -- References -- 6 Science, Social Science, and the "Post" Discourses -- Goals -- The Natural Sciences -- Important Features of Natural Science -- Some Philosophical Assumptions of Science -- Positivism and Critical Rationalism -- Positivism -- Popper's Critical Rationalism -- Counterpoint: Eurocentricity, Colonialism, and Eugenics -- Eurocentrism and Colonialism of Science -- Eugenics -- The "Post" Discourses, Social Justice, and Action -- Postmodernism -- Other "Post" Discourses, Social Justice, and Action -- The Learning Sciences Revisited -- References -- 7 Validity, Integrity, and Impact -- GoalsFive Kinds of Research Validity -- Construct Validity -- Internal Validity -- External Validity -- Ecological Validity -- Reliability -- Qualitative Approaches to Validity -- Trustworthiness -- Transparency -- Authenticity and Ethical Relationship -- Research Ethics and Integrity -- Three Problem Areas in Research Integrity -- Plagiarism and Duplicate Publication -- Coerced and Gratuitous Co-Authorship -- Falsification and Fabrication of Data -- Institutional Approval for Research Procedures -- Toward Impact of Research On Society -- References -- Part II Selected Approaches -- 8 Experimental Research -- Goals -- Defining Experimental Research -- Goals of Experiments -- Theoretical Connections -- Nature of the Research Questions -- Why Experiments Are Used in the Learning Sciences -- Features of Experiments: Control Over Extraneous Variables -- Types of Experiments -- Pre-Experimental Designs -- True Experimental Designs -- Quasi-Experimental Designs -- Factorial Designs -- Between-Subjects Design -- Within-Subjects Design -- Threats to Internal and External Validity -- Representative Examples -- Example 1-Motivating Children to Learn Effectively: Exploring the Value of Intrinsic Integration in Educational Games -- Example 2-The Effects of Representational Guidance On Collaborative Learning Processes -- References -- 9 Case Studies and Ethnography -- Goals -- Levels of Inference in Research -- Selected Types of Lower-Inference Study -- Case Study Research -- Selected Types of Case Study -- Designing a Case Study-A Few Essentials -- An Example From the Literature -- Ethnography -- Roots of Ethnography in Anthropology and Sociology -- Influence in the Learning Sciences -- Ethnography in the Learning Sciences -- Example of Critical Ethnography From the Literature -- Level of Inference and Generalizability -- Highest-Inference StudiesLower-Inference Studies -- References -- 10 Design Research -- Goals -- Defining Design Research -- Features of Design Research -- Developing Theories From Design Research -- Ontological Innovations -- Hypothetical Learning Trajectories -- Design Principles -- Conjecture Maps -- Generic Model of Educational Design Research -- Example 1: Quest Atlantis -- Background -- Analysis and Exploration -- Design and Construction -- Evaluation and Reflection -- Theory Development -- Enduring Impact -- Example 2: The Cornerstone Mathematics Project -- Background -- Phase 3: The Study in England -- Theory Development -- Enduring Impact -- Argumentative Grammar of Design Research -- Notes -- References -- Part III Selected Methods -- 11 Quantitative Instruments -- Goals -- Validity of Measures Related to Learning -- Concept Inventories -- Threats to Validity -- Item Response Theory (IRT) -- Complex Learning Performances -- Content Analysis -- Examples of Coding Schemes for Content Analysis -- Reliability of Content Analysis -- Worked Example of Content Analysis -- Protocol Analysis -- Using Questionnaires to Measure Learner Characteristics -- Factor Analysis -- Example From the Literature -- References -- 12 Estimation and Hypothesis Testing -- Goals -- Sample Statistics, Population Parameters, and Unbiased Population Estimates -- Sampling Distribution of the Mean -- Student's T Distribution -- Point Estimation, Standard Error, and Confidence Interval -- The Other Test Results -- Hypothesis Testing -- Confidence Interval Or Hypothesis Test? -- Dependent Samples Case -- Independent Samples Case -- Type I and Type II Errors and Power of the Test -- An Example From the Literature -- General Hypotheses: Preview of ANOVA -- Non-Parametric Tests -- Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test -- Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test -- General Hypotheses for Categorical Data -- Notes -- References13 Correlation and Linear Regression Analysis -- Goals -- Pearson Correlation Coefficient -- Correlation Coefficient for Ordinal and Non-Linear Data -- Simple Linear Regression Analysis -- Linear Regression Analysis and ANOVA -- Coefficient of Determination -- The Regression Equation -- Hypotheses -- Worked Example -- Assumptions of Simple Linear Regression -- Multiple Regression Analysis -- Changes to the ANOVA Table With Added Predictors -- Regression Equation -- Standardized Regression Equation -- Coefficient of Determination -- Worked Example With Two Predictors -- Hierarchical Regression Analysis as Statistical Control Strategy -- Examples From the Literature -- Regression Analysis Can Be Used to Analyze Group Means -- Logistic Regression Analysis -- Worked Example -- Example From the Literature -- References -- 14 Analysis of Experiments -- Goals -- One-Way ANOVA -- Review of ANOVA Table -- The ANOVA Hypothesis Is a Test About Means -- Why Not Use Regression Analysis Or a Series of T Tests? -- Assumptions Underlying ANOVA -- Levene's Test -- Post-Hoc Tests -- Two-Way ANOVA -- Two-Way ANOVA Table -- Assumptions of Two-Way ANOVA -- Hypotheses -- Post-Hoc Tests and Test of Simple Effects -- Beyond Two Factors -- Repeated Measures ANOVA -- Repeated Measures ANOVA Table -- Assumptions of Repeated Measures ANOVA -- Field Experiment With Control, Two Treatments and Three Iterations -- Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) -- Multilevel Analysis -- Preliminaries -- Multilevel Regression Equations and Hypotheses -- Example From the Literature -- Wrapping Up -- References -- 15 Learning Analytics -- Goals -- Defining Learning Analytics -- Technology Overview -- Generic Procedure for Learning Analytics -- Example 1: Predictive Modeling With the Course Signals -- Example 2: The Classroom Discourse Analyzer -- Concluding Thoughts -- References16 Collecting and Processing Qualitative Data
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