European Parliament Library

Lobbying in the 21st Century Transparency, Integrity and Access

Label
Lobbying in the 21st Century Transparency, Integrity and Access
Language
eng
Literary Form
non fiction
Main title
Lobbying in the 21st Century Transparency, Integrity and Access
Nature of contents
dictionaries
Oclc number
1255877675
Summary
Lobbying, as a way to influence and inform governments, has been part of democracy for at least two centuries, and remains a legitimate tool for influencing public policies. However, it carries risks of undue influence
Table Of Contents
Intro -- Foreword -- Acknowledgements -- Abbreviations and acronyms -- Definitions of terms -- Executive summary -- Key findings -- 1 Lobbying in the 21st Century -- Introduction -- Lobbying is a broad and complex activity -- Major global challenges are strongly influenced by lobbying practices -- COVID-19 highlighted governance frameworks' susceptibility to undue influence -- References -- 2 Transparency -- Introduction -- Transparency on the targets of lobbying activities is limited -- Few countries are transparent about lobbying that targets all branches of government -- Transparency is still the exception at the subnational level -- Transparency on who is conducting lobbying activities is limited -- Certain actors who are de facto lobbyists are not always covered by transparency requirements -- Further transparency is needed to determine the beneficial owners of companies influencing the policy-making process -- In most countries there is no transparency on the influence of foreign governments -- More transparency is needed on all forms of influence -- Transparency on core lobbying activities is limited -- Transparency on political finance is greater than on lobbying, although loopholes remain -- More transparency is needed on the sources of funds for research, think tanks and grassroots organisations -- More transparency is needed on the use of media and social media as a lobbying tool -- Transparency on interests advising government ad hoc bodies is limited -- Information disclosed is usually incomplete and does not allow public scrutiny -- Information on the objective of the lobbying activity is limited -- The timing of disclosures does not allow for public scrutiny -- Engagement with lobbyists and digital tools are used to promote complianceEngagement with lobbyists and public officials encourages compliance with transparency requirements -- Digital tools and automatic verifications are useful for increasing public scrutiny -- Audit and review of the rules and guidelines on lobbying is limited -- A limited number of countries have carried out audits and reviews -- External oversight has proven valuable in identifying gaps in implementation -- References -- 3 Integrity -- Introduction -- Public officials need an integrity framework adapted to the risks of lobbying and other influence activities -- Few countries have specific integrity standards for public officials on lobbying activities -- Public officials require additional guidance to assess the reliability of information -- Rules on gifts, invitations and hospitalities are robust, but need continued attention -- The revolving door is still a concern, despite strict standards for managing conflicts of interest. -- Post-public employment -- Pre-public employment -- Guidance, capacity building and awareness raising can be increased -- Companies and lobbyists need a full integrity framework to engage in policy making -- Companies and lobbyists need comprehensive, detailed integrity standards -- Misalignment between companies' public commitments and lobbying practices reduce trust in public decision making -- References -- 4 Access -- Introduction -- Opportunities for participation need to be increased -- Stakeholders may not always be aware of opportunities to participate -- Stakeholders are introduced into the policy-making process at too late a stage -- Limited information is available to stakeholders -- Stakeholders' capacity needs to be carefully evaluated -- Stakeholders' capacities and capabilities need to be taken into account -- Stakeholders face marginal benefits and high costs for participationStakeholders need feedback and follow-up -- References -- Note -- 5 Summary and conclusions -- Introduction -- Continued relevance and next steps -- References -- Annex A. Detailed transparency and integrity standards on lobbying activities -- Annex B. Methodology -- Background -- Methodology -- Process -- Dissemination -- References
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